Heating, ventilation and cooling
Buildings with an energy-optimised overall concept encompassing the architecture, building physics and building services technology can achieve a small heating and cooling energy demand. Here there are a variety of technology options for the heating, ventilation and cooling. They are linked to form a coherent overall concept in accordance with the specific usage requirements and energy supply options. Often this requires a well insulated and tight building envelope, effective solar shading systems and efficient ventilation adapted to the hygienically required air volume with optional heat recovery. If there is also a sufficiently effective thermal storage capacity in the building, a full air-conditioning system can be dispensed with in many cases.
High indoor comfort is nevertheless achievable, because thermo-active component systems enable these buildings to be heated and cooled with very small temperature differences – mostly in combination with natural, renewable heat sources or heat sinks. Because the temperature differences between the indoor air and the heat sources for heating or cooling are very low, these are known as low-exergy systems.
Also interesting are component- or facade-integrated systems, especially as part of rational, minimally invasive refurbishment concepts. And with a view to the largely renewable electricity grids of the future, electrical heat pumps can potentially play a key role in the grid-supportive operation of buildings.
Renewable electricity is used efficiently for heating applications and the electricity and heating sectors are coupled for smart load management via heat pumps and thermal energy storage systems in buildings. In addition, there are sophisticated, predictive and adaptive building automation systems that communicate with the energy system.